An equivalent amount of water is partially decontaminated and stored in 1,m 3 tanks. Thus, a new tank is needed every six days. The storage capacity onsite has been increased to over 1. The ocean release of the water remains widely contested, especially since it was revealed that a large share of the water does not even meet the safety regulations for release.
Worker Health. A Health Ministry investigation showed that over half of involved companies were in violation of some kind of labor legislation. Amongst the main offsite issues are the future of tens of thousands of evacuees, the assessment of health consequences of the disaster, the management of decontamination wastes and the costs involved. The government has continued to lift restriction orders for affected municipalities. However, according to a recent survey by the Reconstruction Agency, e. Others remain undecided. The treatment of voluntary evacuees 13 is worsening. Once the free housing offer is terminated, they are no longer considered voluntary evacuees and disappear from the statistics.
The Special Rapporteurs from the UN Human Rights Commission repeatedly raised concerns about the Japanese policies concerning evacuees and human rights violations linked to families and workers. Health Issues. While the cause-effect relationship between Fukushima-related radiation exposure and illnesses has not been established, questions have been raised about the examination procedure itself and the processing of information. Food Contamination. Decontamination activities in the Special Decontamination Area ended in March and generated As an increasing number of nuclear facilities either reaches the end of their pre-determined operational lifetimes or closes due to deteriorating economic conditions, the challenges of reactor decommissioning are coming to the fore.
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Installed Capacity. Wind added These numbers compare to a net 8. Electricity Generation.
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That is one more, South Africa, than in Nuclear power increased output by 2. Over the past decade, non-hydro renewables have added more kilowatt-hours than coal or gas and twice as many as hydropower, while nuclear plants generated less power in than in In the U. Wind alone supplied The Stakes. To protect the climate, we must abate the most carbon at the least cost—and in the least time—so we must pay attention to carbon, cost, and time, not to carbon alone. Nuclear Power vs.
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Climate Protection Options. Expanding nuclear power could displace other generators—fossil-fueled or renewable. New operating subsidies for uneconomic reactors in the U. Just in the past five years, U. Renewable Energy Deployment. Nuclear new-build costs many times more per kWh, so it buys many times less climate solution per dollar than major low-carbon competitors—efficiency, wind and solar. That is, even free steam from any kind of fuel or fission is not good enough, because the rest of the plant costs too much.
The business case for modern renewables is so convincing to investors that the latest official U. In many nuclear countries, new renewables can now compete with existing nuclear power plants and their operating, maintenance and fuel costs. While reactor-by-reactor data is not available, published information illustrates that many nuclear plants are not competitive anymore. Substitution for Closed Nuclear Plants. Four cases from four different states in the U. While some nuclear countries had a particularly fast buildup in the s and s Belgium, France, Sweden, U.
A key point is that while current nuclear programs are particularly slow, current renewables programs are particularly fast as WNISR has documented over the past decade.
Stabilizing the climate is urgent, nuclear power is slow. It meets no technical or operational need that these low-carbon competitors cannot meet better, cheaper, and faster. Even sustaining economically distressed reactors saves less carbon per dollar and per year than reinvesting its avoidable operating cost let alone its avoidable new subsidies into cheaper efficiency and renewables. WNISR devotes a substantial new chapter see Climate Change and Nuclear Power to the question whether the use of nuclear power represents an effective tool to fight the rapidly worsening Climate Emergency.
The question raises a complex mix of economic, industrial and systemic issues. However, the outcome of the analysis is surprisingly clear. The underlying challenge of any potential tool to combat Climate Change is making the best use of every invested dollar, euro or yuan in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as quickly as possible. Nuclear new-build turns out to be not only the most expensive, but also the slowest option to bring results. We are not assessing here specific technical issues, including the fact that nuclear power is the most water-consuming way to generate electricity and the multiple threats that Climate Change pose to nuclear facilities.
It comes as no surprise that in the summer of a number of reactors again had to reduce output or shut down entirely in several European countries, as water levels were low in rivers and sea temperatures were heating up. Rising sea levels and the increasing frequency of droughts, flooding, severe storms and wildfires raise the risk levels.
Operators and regulators only recently began to develop specific programs to address these issues.
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With WNISR, we started to assess the performance of the French nuclear sector reactor-by-reactor and this edition presents the complementary analysis to get a full picture of the year The outcome might come as a big surprise to many readers. The average outage at zero power, not including reduced output per unit for the 58 French reactors was almost three months There are multiple reasons for this poor performance, with systematically extended maintenance and refurbishment outages at these aging facilities being the principal cause.
Questions remain about the pace at which China will continue to expand its nuclear program. There were press reports about three new government authorizations but any new project has yet to officially begin pouring of concrete for the base slab of the reactor building. The French regulator requires the costly, time-consuming repair of welding defects in the main steam line of the Flamanville-3 project, delaying startup to at least end of In Japan, no new units have been restarted since mid—four restarted in the first half of —and there are still only nine operating reactors in the country.
Other new-build projects in the U. Many reactors remain threatened with closure long before their licenses expire because they cannot compete in the market. The only active new-build project in the U. Unlike in other states, Georgia Power was authorized to charge its customers for increasing construction costs. While eight additional reactors are closed, no new decommissioning project has been completed, and the gap between the two indicators keeps widening.
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The traditional Nuclear Power vs. Renewable Energy chapter shows that it has become increasingly clear: non-hydro renewables are no longer just cheaper than new-build nuclear but they are now broadly competitive with new-coal—and increasingly with operating nuclear and coal plants whose construction costs have been paid off amortized. Coal is the largest source of electricity globally, with almost four times the output share of nuclear power.
Therefore, outcompeting coal will open up new opportunities for renewable energy, which will further drive down their production costs and increase system integration experience, further speeding up their deployment.
That number has remained stable since Iran started up its first reactor in In addition, there are four newcomer countries Bangladesh, Belarus, Turkey, United Arab Emirates that are building reactors for the first time. The NPT was meant to stimulate the development of nuclear energy programs around the world while limiting the spread of military explosives applications to the five historic nuclear weapon states.
The U. In reality, the expansion of nuclear power remained far below expectations. In other words, world nuclear production outside China dropped more in the period —17 than it added in The numbers illustrate that China continues to dominate the upwards-leaning indicators in nuclear statistics. The nuclear contribution to commercial primary energy remained stable at 4.
It has been at this level since and constitutes a year low. The following remarkable developments for the year illustrate the volatile operational situation of the individual national reactor fleets see country-specific sections for details :. Two countries, the U.